Welcome to our latest Not-for-Profit sector update. In this edition we look at the recent amendments to the Australian Accounting Standards for Not-for-Profit Entities and discuss the outcomes of the recent Australian Accounting Standards Board meeting.
Control in the not-for-profit sector
AASB 2013-8 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards – Australian Implementation Guidance for Not-for-Profit Entities – Control and Structured Entities [AASB 10, AASB 12 & AASB 1049] (“AASB 2013-8”) provides guidance to assist not-for-profit entities in assessing the AASB 10 Consolidated Financial Statements (“AASB 10”) control model and also applying the requirements relating to structured entities in the not-for-profit sector.
The AASB 10 control model contains three key elements and can be summarised as follows:
AASB 10 is drafted in a very ‘for-profit’ manner using terms such as investor, investee, returns and power so it can be difficult to determine how these principals would apply to a not-for-profit relationship.
The AASB 2013-8 guidance doesn’t change the requirements of both AASB 10 and AASB 12, but rather provides additional explanations and examples to illustrate how the requirements might be applied in for example local government and university situations as well as the public sector and private sector too.
The guidance applies to annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2014 which is the mandatory application date for AASB 10 in the not-for-profit sector.
In assessing power in the not-for-profit sector, an investor would have power over an investee when the investor can require the investee to deploy its assets or incur liabilities in a way that affects returns to the investor. An ownership interest is not required.
Examples of power might include requiring an investee to provide goods or services to the investor or other parties that assist in achieving or furthering the investor’s objectives.
Power is often the most critical assessment in the not-for-profit sector, and for power to be present the investor must have substantive rights.
Rights that might give an investor power include the right to give policy directions or rights to approve or veto operating. The rights of the investor need to give them power over the investee’s relevant activities.
Example: The power to appoint and remove members of a statutory authority without cause.
Notwithstanding that due to sensitivity in the electorate there may be a reluctance to do this, as the investor can remove the statutory authority whether or not they choose to.
2. Rights or exposures to variable returns
The term ‘returns’ is a very ‘profit’ oriented term, however the guidance explains that it encompasses financial, non-financial, direct and indirect benefits, whether positive or negative and includes the achievement or furtherance of investor’s objectives.
Some examples of returns may be below or above market interest loans or the company making payments that members would otherwise have been required to make.
3. Link between power and rights or exposures to returns
For control to be present there needs to be a link between the power and rights or exposures to variable returns.
Charity Inc establishes a trust and appoints a third party as trustee. Charity Inc retains the ability to replace the trustee at its absolute discretion at any point in time. Under AASB 10, Charity Inc would be considered to have power over the trust by virtue of its ability to replace the trustee at any point in time and assuming the other control criteria are present, Charity Inc would be considered to control the trust.
If however Charity Inc did not have the ability to remove the trustee at its absolute discretion, it is possible the trustee may control the trust.
Under the old requirements (AASB 127), trustees were generally not considered to control a trust where they were not beneficiaries as they are expected to act in the best interests of those beneficiaries. However, under AASB 10 provided the trustee cannot be replaced at the discretion of another party the trustee may have power and a careful assessment will be required.
All not-for-profit entities that are preparing general purpose financial statements (either full or reduced disclosure regime) must apply AASB 10 and consolidate controlled entities. Entities preparing special purpose financial statements are not mandatorily required to apply AASB 10 and accordingly can choose whether or not you wish to prepare consolidated financial statements.
For entities preparing consolidated financial statements for the first time there may be differences between the reporting dates of entities within the newly formed group which need to be considered.
There may also be instances where entities within the ‘new group’ have historically adopted different accounting policies for like transactions (e.g. PPE at cost and FV).
The application of AASB 10 and AASB 2013-8 may catch some entities unaware and therefore a complete review of all relationships is required.
Revenue recognition in the not for profit sector
At the most recent meeting of the Australian Accounting Standards Board (“AASB”), it was noted that it is now unlikely the not-for-profit revenue recognition exposure draft will be released before mid-2015 meaning it is unlikely we’ll have a final revenue recognition standard to replace AASB 1004 Contributions before June 2015.
Much of the current discussion centres around the requirement to split ‘donation’ income from sales and service income.AASB staff prepared a draft paper which contained a number of examples illustrating how AASB staff saw this requirement applying to certain fairly common not-for-profits transactions.
The result was a very complex approach which would be quite onerous. AASB staff are currently reconsidering the proposals.
Cocoa Inc sells chocolates for $2, a 50c premium over which they would be available in a supermarket. According to the examples, as the chocolates are sold at a premium, the entity would use the stand alone selling price to determine the revenue from sale of goods and the excess would be allocated to donations income.
Therefore under the staff paper, there would be a 50c donation component (recognised upfront as donation income) and a $1.50 sale of goods amount (also recognised upfront due to the transfer or risks and rewards of the chocolate bar occurring at the time it is taken from the box).
Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission (“ACNC”) – an update
From 1 July 2013, medium and large charities registered with the ACNC are required to submit audited (or reviewed) financial statements to the ACNC, either exclusively or in conjunction with reporting requirements imposed by other regulators.
The main entities impacted by these changes are incorporated associations, companies limited by guarantee, co-operatives and charitable trusts that are charities.
1. Companies limited by guarantee
From 1 July 2013 companies limited by guarantee are no longer required to interact with ASIC on many of the matters they previously did.
For example, they no longer need to lodge changes to their constitution with ASIC, they are no longer required to notify ASIC of changes to address and business details, nor are they required to notify ASIC of changes in directors and secretaries. The company will also no longer have to pay an annual review fee.
Under the ACNC certain provisions of the Corporations Act are also no longer applicable and the ACNC Act and associated Regulations become mandatory.
a) Directors report
Unless there is a constitutional requirement for them to do so, companies limited by guarantee reporting under the ACNC are no longer required to prepare a directors report. Notwithstanding there is no mandatory required, the inclusion of a directors report including things such as the names of directors, principal activities and short and long term objectives (similar to the section 300B Corporations Act reporting requirements) is considered better practice.
b) Auditor independence declaration
There is no longer a requirement for the financial report to include an Independence Declaration, however again one can be included if desired. The auditor is still required to report to those charged with governance in writing confirming their independence however there is no external reporting requirement.
c) References to the Corporations Act
References to the Corporations Act in the financial statements (typically Note 1), the engagement letter and also the representation letter should be updated, as well as the directors’ declaration which must all now refer to the ACNC Act rather than the Corporations Act.
Note: The ACNC Act refers to the concept of a responsible entity declaration, however for a company this is a directors and the terminology of director or responsible entity can be used.
d) Annual General Meetings
Companies limited by guarantee are no longer bound to hold a formal AGM (as they would have under the Corporations Act), again, provided there is no constitutional requirement to hold one. These entities are however required to comply with Governance Standard 2 and therefore the charity does have an obligation to report to members and provide members with opportunities to ask questions and vote on resolutions for example. Practically it is unlikely there will be a great deal of change on this point.
Note: If a charity cease to be registered with the ACNC, the Corporations Act provisions will ‘re-apply’ and the company limited by guarantee must comply with the Corporations Act requirements as they did historically.
2. Associations, co-operatives and charitable fundraising organisations
Unlike companies limited by guarantee, the ACNC Act does not override the requirements of state and territory legislation acts and therefore these entities may have two requirements to lodge financial statements (once with the state based regulator and once with the ACNC).
According to the ACNC website, where an Association, Co-operative or charitable fundraising organisation is required to submit reports to a state based regulator, the ACNC will accept this report as meeting the ACNC requirements for the 2014 reporting period, and therefore there is no requirement for these entities to update the basis of preparation for example like CLBG.
The requirements can be summarised as follows:
Note: If a charity is an incorporated association or co-operative AND a charitable fundraising organisation, it should submit to the ACNC the report provided to the incorporating regulator (not the fundraising report). However, if the charity is a trust or is unincorporated, it can submit its fundraising report.
In the interests of reducing compliance, while the ACNC Act does require a responsible entity declaration, if this is not required by the state based regulator the charity is not currently required to prepare one for the purposes of the ACNC Act.
In jurisdictions where there is no state based regulator requirement to lodge financial statements (e.g. WA for an Incorporated Association) the entity will be required to lodge ACNC compliant reports with the ACNC.
Future of the ACNC
As we are already into the June 2015 reporting period it is likely that 2015 reporting for state based regulated entities will be the same as 2014 (i.e. submit to the ACNC what you submitted to the state based regulator), however this is still unknown and further information will be provided as it comes to hand.
3. Reporting under the ACNC
The ACNC uses the reporting entity concept, and therefore if the charity is a reporting entity, it must submit general purpose financial statements (either full or reduced disclosure regime) otherwise it can submit special purpose financial statements which comply with the minimum six standards being AASB 101, AASB 107, AASB 108, AASB 1031, AASB 1048 and AASB 1054.
The ACNC acknowledges that there may be situations where entities were not required to prepare financial statements in prior years and has put certain transitional provisions in place.
For example, if a medium or large charity was not required to and did not prepare a financial report that complied with Australian Accounting Standards in the 2013 reporting period it will not be required to provide general or special purpose financial statements for the 2014 reporting period.
Instead, the charity only needs to complete the financial information section within the 2014 Annual Information Statement, and have this information either reviewed or audited (depending on the charity’s size), as this information will be the charity’s ‘financial statements’ for the 2014 reporting period.
Cash versus accruals
Further, for those medium or large charities that have historically reported on a cash basis, they can provide information to the ACNC on a cash basis for the 2014 reporting period, and are therefore not required to comply with the accruals basis accounting required by Australian Accounting Standards.
2015 and beyond
For the 2015 reporting period, if a medium or large charity was not required to submit a full financial report in 2014 they are not required to provide full comparative information in their 2015 financial report. The charity and its auditor or reviewer will just need to communicate this and if applicable the shift from cash to the accruals basis due to the potential confusion this may cause.
4. Key dates
For a charity with a 30 June 2014 year end, by 31 January 2015 ensure you have lodged your 2014 Annual Information Statement and financial report if required.
If you are using a substituted reporting period, for the 2014 reporting period you have six months from the end of your substituted year end to lodge your AIS and annual report if required.
© William Buck International Limited November 2014 – all rights reserved
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